Ferrock: carbon negative substitute for cement: a review

Published 07-12-2023
Section Research Articles


  • Vidya Jose Asst. Prof. Toc H Institute of Science and Technology, India
  • Vasudev R Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Ernakulam, Kerala, India


Ferrock, Carbon negative, waste management, cement substitute


Cement is considered as one of the prominent building materials used for construction. It is considered as the second most used entity next to water in the world today. Though it has many significant advantages, it has a major disadvantage of CO2 emission. For every ton of cement generated more or less eight ton of CO2 is released to the atmosphere. Hence it is high time to find a substitute for cement. Ferrock is such a substitute which utilizes a variety of waste products to produce a versatile building material. It is a binder that is a blend of iron oxide powder, fly ash, lime powder, metakaolin and oxalic acid. This review mainly focuses on characteristics, advantages and application of ferrock in building construction.